The Confectionery Dictionary

bittersweet chocolate - chocolate liquor with less sugar and more cocoa butter added             
cacao - the dried bean that chocolate is produced from; it is ground and separated into cocoa butter and cocoa powder
caramel - a confection made from melting different types of sugar; caramel candy is made by boiling sugar, butter, vanilla and milk; not heated above 120 °C
chocolate - cacao nibs roasted and ground to a powder, then combined with fat (cocoa butter) and sugar 
chocolate liquor - the product of melted cacao nibs
cocoa butter - the fat of the cacao nib
cocoa powder - the non-fat part of the cacao nib, also known as cocoa solids
couverture - a term for extra-fatty chocolates, usually containing at least 32% cocoa butter (30-40% total fat content) and high cocoa percentages
dark chocolate - chocolate with fat and sugar added, without any milk products; there are no restrictions on dark chocolate in the US
gianduja - chocolate containing at least 30% hazelnut paste
gummi candy - a chewy confection made from gelatin
liquorice - a confection comprised of sugar, liquorice extract and a binding agent (gelatin, starch or gum arabic)
marshmallow - a confection made of whipped gelatin (occasionally egg whites), sugar (or corn syrup), and water
milk chocolate - chocolate with some form of milk added; US regulations require at least 10% chocolate liquor and at least 12% cocoa solids in milk chocolate; EU standards require at least 25% cocoa solids; japanese standards are much more discriminatory, as they are broken down into pure, regular and quasi chocolate materials
mockolate - the term used for chocolate products made by adding fats other than cocoa butter to the cocoa solids; these confections cannot be labelled "chocolate," but must be called "chocolate coating" or "chocolate candy" to distinguish them
nougat - a sticky confection made with honey or sugar and nuts (almonds, hazelnuts, pistachios); the soft, chewy nougat is known as white nougat and is made from egg whites, whereas brown nougat is more firm and often more crunchy as it is made from caramelized sugar
praline - a confection made from nuts and sugar syrup
taffy - a confection made by pulling (stretching) boiled sugar and butter until fluffy and chewy
toffee - a confection made by boiling molasses (or sugar) and butter; boiled to 150-160 *C

wafer - a thin, flat, crispy and sweet cookie
white chocolate - cocoa butter and sugar without cocoa solids; it's debated whether or not white chocolate is technically chocolate